The inflammation generates a large amount of free radicals, which themselves accelerate the inflammatory process. Vitamin E is one of the most effective antioxidants for protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids of cell membranes from oxidation. Vitamin E inhibits lipid oxidation by scavenging peroxyl radicals much faster than these radicals can react with fatty acids or proteins from adjacent cell membranes.
It is the most powerfull reducing agent available for cells. Vitamin C regenerates glutathione enzyme, quenches free radicals both intra and extracellularly, and protects against free radical-mediated protein inactivation associated with oxidative bursts of neutrophils.
It acts as cofactor of glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme that protects tissues against oxidative stress, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and organic hydroperoxides and by regenerating vitamin E.
It reduces cartilage degradation (inhibits metalloproteinases) and promotes cartilage regeneration (stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans and the synthesis of collagen.
It possesses an abolic effects on the cartilage including stimulation of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycanproduction. Moreover, it also acts by inhibiting the activity of degradative cartilage enzymes (aggrecanases and metalloproteinases).
Omega 3 fatty acids
They improve the clinical signs of osteoarthritis, clinical orthopedic examination, gait analysis of ground reaction forces, alongwith a decrease in pain. Being a clear example of the application of nutrigenomics in the nutrition of dogs and cats, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibits the upregulation of aggrecanases, by blocking the signal at the level of messenger RNA, reducing the articular cartilage degradation. Moreover, omega 3 fatty acids modulate eicosanoid production. Eicosanoids resulting from omega-3 fatty acid metabolism are less stimulants of the inflammatory response than those resulting from omega-6 fatty acids. Moreover, they are the precursors of resolvins and protectins, counter-regulatory inflammatory substances that serve as agonists for endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms and significantly act in the resolution of inflammation.
Its anti-inﬂammatory properties appears to be mediated through the inhibition of induction of important enzymes that mediate inﬂammatory processes like COX-2, LOX, and iNOS production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor, and activation of transcription factors like NF-κB and AP-1.
It increases curcumin bioavailability (by 20-fold), due to piperine’s inhibition of hepatic glucuronidation and intestinal metabolism of curcumin.