It is essential in the formation of coenzyme NADPþ and takes part in biosynthetic reactions, such as in the synthesis of fatty acids, thus playing a key role in the synthesis of epidermal lipids.
It is present throughout the body in the form of coenzyme A. Coenzyme A plays a role in the formation of a number of essential fats and sterols. As such, it is important in the formation of the lipids that form the lamellar components of the skin barrier.
It acts as a cofactor of carboxylase synthetase enzymes. This group of enzymes catalyzes the biosynthesis of fatty acids, being this vitamin crucial in the maintenance of the dermal-barrier health.
The inflammation generates a large amount of free radicals, which themselves accelerate the inflammatory process. Vitamin E is one of the most effective antioxidants for protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids of cell membranes from oxidation. Vitamin E inhibits lipid oxidation by scavenging peroxyl radicals much faster than these radicals can react with fatty acids or proteins from adjacent cell membranes.
The excess of histamine aggravates inflammatory conditions of the dermis and respiratory tract. Most histamine is stored in tissue mast cells and blood basophils. After the release of histamine by these cells or by de novo synthesis, histamine triggers inflammation. Vitamin C spontaneously degrades histamine, being tissue histamine levels inversely related to vitamin C status.
Numerous reports have linked zinc deficiency to many dermatoses in dogs and cats, since it is needed for wound healing and the replacement of epithelial cells.Moreover, zinc deficiency accelerates the development of clinical signs due to lack of essential fatty acids, because it reduces ∆-6-desaturase enzyme activity. This enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of EPA and DHA from other simpler fatty acids.
Omega 3 fatty acids
They modulate eicosanoid production. Eicosanoids resulting from omega-3 fatty acid metabolism are less stimulants of the inflammatory response than those resulting from omega-6 fatty acids. Moreover, they are the precursors of resolvins and protectins, counter-regulatory inflammatory substances that serve as agonists for endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms and significantly act in the resolution of inflammation.
Its anti-inﬂammatory properties appears to be mediated through the inhibition of induction of important enzymes that mediate inﬂammatory processes like COX-2, LOX, and iNOS production of cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor, and activation of transcription factors like NF-κB and AP-1. Moreover, curcumin acts at multiple points, helping in enhancing wound-healing. Curcumin treatment results in faster reepithelialization of the epidermis, increased migration of myoﬁbroblasts, ﬁbroblasts, and macrophages in the wound bed, extensive neovascularization, and greater collagen deposition.
It increases curcumin bioavailability (by 20-fold), due to piperine’s inhibition of hepatic glucuronidation and intestinal metabolism of curcumin.