It improves the epithelial integrity due to it is the preferred metabolic fuel for enterocytes, it positively influences cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation (greater villus height and lower crypt depth), and thus facilitates the nutrient absorption.Butyric acid also acts by decreasing intestinal inflammation, through reduction of oxidative damage to DNA and through induction of apoptosis of cells with DNA damage.
It plays a role in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and function at tight junctional level, thus preventing the entry of antigens, toxics and pathogenic bacteria that cause inflammation.
Omega 3 fatty acids
They modúlate eicosanoid production. Eicosanoids resulting from omega-3 fatty acid metabolism are less stimulants of the inflammatory response than those resulting from omega-6 fatty acids. Moreover, they are the precursors of resolvins and protectins, counter-regulatory inflammatory substances that serve as agonists for endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms and significantly act in the resolution of inflammation.
It improves the balance ofthe intestinal microbiota. Competition for nutrients, adhesion sites, and the production of antimicrobial substances (short-chain fatty acids, defensins, etc.) inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, while favoring the development of beneficial.
Prebiotic component, which indicates that it resist standard digestion and enters the large intestine in an intact form, whereit serves as anenergysource for the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus spp, Bacteroidesspp, and Bifidobacteriumspp), thusstimulatingtheirgrowth and/ortheiractivity. As a result of its fermentation, the production of toxic substances (ammonia and biogenic amines) decreases and the release of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, lactate, and butyrate) increases in the intestinal lumen, reducing the presence of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and C. perfringens), thanks to the reduction of the colonic pH.
It plays an important role in many biochemical reactions (including DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis from homocysteine), as well as in important enzymatic reactions in the citric acid cycle, where it acts as a cofactor. Hypocobalaminemia typically occurs when specific cobalamin receptors in the ileum are damaged as a consequence of inflammatory disease. Deficiency is accelerated by reduced cobalamin consumption and ongoing gastrointestinal losses.