Beta-glucans are PAMP molecules (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) which act as modifiers of the immune response. It activates macrophages and local dendritic cells to positively regulate MHC class II and increase the secretion of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12), which that allows them to efficiently present antigens to T lymphocytes and initiate an effective immune response. Beta-glucans stimulate a new concept called trained immunity or innate immune memory, which allows macrophages, monocytes and natural killer cells show a greater response capacity when they are reunited with pathogens, both at the digestive and systemic levels.
It provides a double protective action against the protozoan Leishmania infantum. 1: Presents leishmanicidal action (apoptotic antileishmanial activity); 2: It preferentially stimulates Th1 immunity (characterized by increased levels of IFN-γ, CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, and nitrite) and suppresses Th2 immune responses with a reduced level of IL-4 and IL-10.
Precursor of glutamine, considered a conditionally essential amino acid and a key nutrient for the proper functioning of the immune system. Glutamine is the preferred energy source for immune cells, and providing greater amounts of this essential nutrient improves their function.
Encapsulated probiotic (technology that ensures the stability of the bacteria during the period of manufacture and conservation of the product). Enterococcus faecium modifies the immune response through two mechanisms. 1: Indirectly due to the ability to balance the intestinal microbiota. Competition for nutrients, adhesion sites and the production of antimicrobial substances (short chain fatty acids, defensins, etc.) inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, while favoring the development of beneficial bacteria; 2: Direct effect on the immune response both innate and acquired against pathogens at the local and systemic level. Probiotics induce the maturation of dendritic cells and macrophages (increasing their phagocytic activity and their efficiency of presenting antigens to T lymphocytes), promote the production of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), stimulate the cellular activity of the natural killer cells and increase the response to vaccination (greater production of IgG and IgA).
They increase the secretion of IgA in the intestine, stimulating the most important humoral immune factor in the intestinal mucosa. These inhibit the adherence, colonization and penetration of bacteria and toxins, increase mucus secretion and prevent the uptake of food antigens. In this sense, the increase in IgA at the intestinal level represents a greater local immune capacity and greater protection against the invasion of pathogens.
Prebiotic component (it resists digestion and reaches the colon intact) that constitutes a source of energy, and therefore favors the proliferation, of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus spp, Bacteroides spp and Bifidobacterium spp). Consequently, beneficial bacteria inhibit by competition exclusive the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, as a result of their fermentation, they increase the release of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, lactate and butyrate) into the intestinal lumen, reducing the presence of pathogenic bacteria (E. coli and C. perfringens), thanks to the reduction of colonic pH.
Immune cells contain particularly high concentrations of vitamin E to protect themselves from oxidative damage related to their high metabolic activity and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their membrane. Vitamin E improves the integrity of the cell membrane and positively modulates signaling events in T lymphocytes. Additionally, indirectly, vitamin E protects T cell function by reducing the production of T cell suppressor factors such as PGE2 produced by macrophages.
It is the most powerful reducing agent available for cells. Vitamin C regenerates the enzyme glutathione, neutralizes free radicals both intracellularly and extracellularly, and protects against free radical-mediated protein inactivation associated with the oxidative breakdown of neutrophils.
It acts as a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme that protects tissues against oxidative stress, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxides and organic hydroperoxides and by regenerating vitamin E.
Zinc increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase. It is a cofactor of the enzyme superoxide dismutase that catalyzes the conversion of superoxide radicals into H2O2, less oxidants. Zinc deficiency is a cause of dysfunction in almost all classes of immune cells, in addition to being related to the involution of the thymus.